Thanh Hóa: Diversifying shrimp farming models
Implement Plan No. 101/KH-UBND, dated 11/5/2018 of the Provincial People’s Committee on actions to develop shrimp industry in Thanh Hóa province to 2025; coastal localities such as Nga Sơn, Hậu Lộc, Hoàng Hoa, Quảng Xương… have focused on orienting people to choose shrimp farming methods and techniques suitable to each region, exploring the potential and advantages of shrimp farming according to natural conditions and effective use of land in the intertidal zone.
Recently, in order to gradually switch from extensive farming to intensive farming, districts of Nga Sơn, Hậu Lộc, Hoàng Hoa, Quảng Xương… have mobilized investment resources to build concentrated shrimp farming areas and apply them in the direction of VietGAP. Many farming households have boldly invested in roofs, applied Biofloc technology, raised commercial TTCT in cement tanks, yielding 20-30% higher than normal farming…
Semi – Biofloc farming
To raise shrimp according to this technology, the ponds are invested with tarpaulin lining the bottom and the pond banks combined with an automatic siphon system. In addition, the farming area has a water storage pond and a waste treatment pond; The water for farming is pumped into the filter tank, then put into the sedimentation pond, then put into the tarpaulin pond for treatment. In addition to the pond system, the households also invested in microbial culture zones using a mixture of water, molasses, microorganisms, etc. to create Biofloc in drums to bring into the pond. After that, run fans and aerate for Biofloc to grow and inhibit pathogenic microorganisms… According to the households implementing the model, this is an important factor to help shrimp grow and develop; Therefore, the investment cost is more than 1 billion VND/ha. As one of the farming households following this model, Mr. Le Van Phuong (Châu Triều village, Hoàng Châu commune, Hoàng Hoa district) said that although the cost is high, this process helps farmers to be safe and effective. Farmed shrimp grow quickly, control diseases, products ensure food safety. This model uses industrial feed and probiotics to supplement the feed and manage the pond environment. Shrimp farming after about 2.5 – 3 months is harvested, reaching the size of 40 – 55 shrimp/kg, the selling price is about 170,000 – 180,000 VND/kg, higher than the price of traditionally farmed shrimp. Thanks to fast shrimp growth and disease control, the farm can raise 3 crops a year.
Super intensive shrimp farming in 3 stages
According to actual research in industrial shrimp farming areas in Hoàng Hoa, Quảng Xương and Nghi Sơn districts, unlike conventional shrimp farming in which there is only 1 stage (the purchased seed is released directly into the pond), super-intensive shrimp farming model includes 3 farming stages (in which, there are 2 stages of nursery and 1 stage of commercial culture). Accordingly, the pond system is designed with 3 ponds, including a nursery pond in phase 1, a nursery pond in phase 2 and a grow-out pond. In addition, there is an input water treatment system and a waste and wastewater treatment system. The stage 1 nursery pond is a cement tank, placed in a greenhouse, the stage 2 nursery pond and the stage 3 grow-out pond are in the form of an earthen pond lined with 100% canvas or floating tanks designed with a circular iron frame. With this model, farmed shrimp achieves a high survival rate for the whole production process of 80%, while conventional farming only achieves an average survival rate of 65-70%. Farmers have a quick crop rotation, so they can raise up to 4-6 crops/year (average total output 160 – 180 tons/ha/year), about 2-3 times higher than the 2-stage shrimp farming method and higher in productivity and output per farming area.
Shrimp farming in winter
Over the years, people in some provinces and cities in the Northern region as well as Thanh Hoá province, have invested in a tarpaulin pond system and must cover the entire pond to implement the winter shrimp farming model. One typical example is Le Van Hung’s model (Hoàng Trương commune, Hoàng Hoa district). Hung shared, after learning and drawing experience, he boldly invested in off-season shrimp farming with the support of the National Agricultural Extension Center in connecting techniques and products for shrimp farming in the public-private partnership project – PPP “Professionalization of farmers”. Accordingly, he has invested in 7 canvas-lined ponds on an area of nearly 1.5 hectares, each pond is about 1,000 – 2,000 m2.
Mr. Hung said that with a pond of 1,000 m2, he stocked at a density of 300-350 shrimp/m2, after 4 months of stocking shrimp, the size was 50-60 shrimp/kg, the output is expected to reach 4 tons/pond with selling price ranges from 190,000 to 200,000 VND/kg; After deducting costs, he can earn about 350-400 million VND/pond.